24th International Conference on Wear of Materials
April 16-20th, 2023
Long-established and greatly respected, this conference discusses current and innovative research concerning both the wear and friction of materials. Covering the following topics and more- Biotribology, Ceramics, and CMCs, Cutting and Tool Wear, Erosion and Erosion-Impact, Extreme Environment Wear including High and Low Temperatures and Vacuum, Fretting Wear, Lubricated Wear, Metals and MMCs- the opportunities to learn and engage are endless.
5th International Conference on Ionic Liquids in Separation and Purification Technology
February 5-8th, 2023
Building off of the past 4 related conferences, this conference will further delve into the field of ionic liquid separation and purification technology. Topics such as process modeling, applications, diversity of advanced materials, and more will be discussed with ionic liquids in mind. Late abstracts are still being accepted to form posters and should be no more than 300 words long.
Peptide Materials Conference
January 15 - 20th, 2023
Hosted by the Gordon Research Conference, this event explores cutting-edge and unpublished research on peptide materials. From design to synthesis, to assembly, to conjugation, to micellization, to gelation, to coacervation, to phase behavior of peptides, this conference will dive deep into proteins and their function as a material. The two keynote sessions are “What We Have Learned From Using Peptides as Materials Building Units” and “Unleashing the Full Potential of Proteins as Functional Materials” given by accomplished members of the peptide research community.
Adipose Tissue: Energizing Good Fat
January 15-19th, 2023
In this joint meeting with Bioenergetics in Health and Diseases, this meeting will examine how adipose tissue dysfunction, as manifested by obesity and metabolic disease, disproportionally affects groups underrepresented in medicine and research. The meeting will further explore how adipose tissue can affect metabolic processes and as well as how adipocytes exist, and how they contribute to the functions of different depots.
4th Growth Factors in Regeneration and Regenerative Medicine Conference
February 9th, 2023
Bringing together researchers and clinicians, this conference hopes to explore and discuss many different growth factors and cytokines that are involved in tissue repair and regeneration/regenerative medicine. The conference will include many grant opportunities as well as cover a multitude of engaging topics related to regenerative medicine.
UK Biobank Winter Scientific Conference
December 8th, 2022
This conference delves into the world’s largest and most accessible biomedical database. The conference will delve into how the UK Biobank is enabling enhanced health outcomes, progress in the dementia research field, and even more. This is a great opportunity for those interested in the intersection between biological research and the storing of research data.
International Conference on Advances in Science and Technology and Humanities (ICASTH)
December 26-27, 2022
This conference aims to bring together scholars and researchers to engage with the recent innovation in the science and technology field as well as analyze the humanitarian aspects associated with them. The deadline for conference research paper submission is December 9th, 2022.
Metlife 2022 Triangle Tech X Conference
November 30 and December 1, 2022
Featuring Serena Williams as the keynote speaker, this conference aims to show the promise STEM holds in the acceleration of solving many of the issues that plague current-day society. The conference will specifically touch on STEM careers, roles, and leadership opportunities as well as female empowerment within the STEM field. With some incredible speakers and topics, this conference aims to empower women and STEM field enthusiasts to enact change.
National Conference on Undergraduate Research (NCUR)
April 13-15, 2023
This annual conference is designed for undergraduate students to meet in an intellectual environment and enthuse with their fellow peers about their research efforts. Hosting 3,500 to 4,000 students per year, this year’s conference will be held at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. Students will give their multifaceted presentations and faculty mentors can also attend to present and attend networking sessions.
Stochastic Physics in Biology Gordon Research Conference
January 15 - 20, 2023
The Stochastic Physics in Biology Conference, hosted by the Gordon Research Conference, will discuss biological systems using stochastic physics. These interdisciplinary topics will be addressed by a diverse group of distinguished physicists, mathematicians, engineers, and biologists. Some of the specific topics that speakers will cover include spatial organization of biological functions and activities, stochastic physics in gene expression, thermodynamics of biological systems, and more!
RNA Nanotechnology Gordon Research Conference
January 8 - 13, 2023
Hosted by the Gordon Research Conference in Ventura, CA, this conference aims to address emerging, cutting-edge research surrounding RNA nanotechnology. Topics addressed will fall into nine sessions with the following topics: nucleic acid structure and assembly, RNA modification, synthetic biology, nanostructures, biomaterials, extracellular vesicles, therapeutics, diagnostics, and imaging. Distinguished speakers and discussion leaders will be in attendance, and short talks will be delivered on selected abstracts.
The Small GTPases in Membrane Processes Conference
Applications due April 4, 2022
May 15-20, 2022
This conference is meant to be an open ground where researchers from all over the world discuss the effects and the means in which the small GTPases can be utilized to better the health of living organisms. Anyone can submit her or his abstract and once selected, will have an incredible opportunity to share their research topics with renowned scientists at Nova Scotia, Canada.
West Coast Biological Sciences Undergraduate Research (WCBSUR) Conference
April 9, 2022
This undergraduate research conference allows students to present their research in the fields of biology or biochemistry. For more info, visit: https://www.pointloma.edu/opportunities/wcbsur-conference
Developing Molecular Pathways into Therapeutic Opportunities for Alcohol-Associated Diseases
April 24-29, 2022
Hosted by the Gordon Research Conference Frontiers of Science, this conference explores therapeutic opportunities for alcohol-associated diseases that include developing molecular pathways. Applications for this conference, at the latest, must be submitted by March 27, 2022. The conference will touch upon many different related topics including alcohol-induced tissue injury.
JobsOffice Virtual Job Fair and Career Expo Event
May 6, June 3, July 1, August 5, and more listed online
An opportunity to attend a Virtual Career and Job Expo that claims to provide access to local and global job openings and career opportunities as well as networking professionals to facilitate support and collaboration.
UMSOM PTRS Virtual Research Day 2022
May 9, 2022 1:00–5:30 pm
The Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science (PTRS) at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) will host a virtual Research Day in order to showcase significant research projects and activities led by faculty, researchers, and studentss. The keynote speaker and researchers from the department will deliver lectures followed by an opportunity for live discussion and Q&A followed by a virtual poster session to showcase current research projects in the department.
May 23-25, 2022
CMPMEET2022 shares an insight into the recent research and cutting edge technologies, which gains immense interest with the colossal and exuberant presence of young and brilliant researchers, business delegates, and talented student communities. CMPMEET2022's goal is to bring together, a multi-disciplinary group of scientists and engineers from all over the world to present and exchange breakthrough ideas relating to Condensed Matter Physics. It promotes top-level research and globalizes quality of research in general, thus making discussions, presentations more internationally competitive and focusing attention on the recent outstanding achievements in the field of Condensed Matter Physics.
Biological Responses to Winter Climate Change
June 5-10, 2022
Part of the conference of the Biology of Winter hosted by the Gordon Research Conference, this event will discuss the biological responses to winter climate change. Applications for this conference, at the latest, must be submitted by May 8, 2022. With winter as a driving force for many ecological and physical processes, this conference aims to bring together invested individuals who will set an agenda on future winter research and discuss current steps being taken to combat the deleterious effects of climate change.
Frontiers of Hydrology- Future of Water
June 19-24, 2022, in San Juan, Puerto Rico
In this conference, leaders in the science of water and hydrology will discuss innovative techniques used to convene the water community. Touching upon urban planning, engineering, and hydrology’s connection to other disciplines, this conference is one those interested in hydrology do not want to miss! The conference is co-hosted by the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and CUAHSI (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc.).
Basic and Translational Cellular Metabolism in Immunity
June 19-24, 2022
Hosted by the Gordon Research Conference, this conference will be held over five days and explore the concepts and research surrounding basic and translational cellular metabolism in immunity. Touching upon the metabolic programming of immune cells, cellular metabolism in the programming of myeloid and lymphoid immune cells in immunity and disease, and a multitude of emerging research techniques, this lecture is one you don’t want to miss. Applications for this meeting must be submitted by May 22, 2022.
2022 Polymer Physics Conference
Applications due June 26, 2022
July 24-29, 2022
Hydrocarbon feedbacks, though relatively effective, do nevertheless harm the environment with the world relying heavily on its ability to produce energy. Polymer physics, which is a study of repeating molecule chains, can be a way to solve this issue by upcycling used molecules instead of laying it all to waste. The conference is open to all individuals, including undergraduates and graduates who are interested in contributing to the progress that this frontier science is making. The conference will be held at Mount Holyoke College (South Hadley, MA).
American Society for Engineering Education 2022 Conference
June 26-29, 2022
Meant to foster an environment that encourages the exchange and discussion of ideas surrounding the field of engineering, this conference hosts over 400 technical sessions, peer-reviewed papers, and thousands of accomplished authors. Make sure to check out this great learning opportunity.
From Stem Cells to Human Development- The Company of Biologists Journal Meeting
Abstracts due July 15th, 2022
September 11-14th, 2022
This meeting is held by The Company of Biologists every two years, having started in 2014. Bringing together a diverse group of researchers, this meeting will delve deep into the questions surrounding viewing human embryos, studying organogenesis, pluripotency, and the differentiation mechanisms of stem cells.
2022 Gordon Research Conference On Photonuclear Reactions: Frontiers in Nuclear and Hadronic Physics
August 7-12, 2022
The Photonuclear Reactions GRC is a forum for the presentation and discussion of the most recent and exciting results in a wide range of subatomic physics topics. Since 1959, the Photonuclear Gordon Research Conference has been a preeminent meeting for the discussion of new ideas and results, even at the preliminary stage, providing ample and unique opportunities for young scientists and leading researchers to interact in the most scientifically stimulating environment. Senior researchers and younger colleagues are housed on campus at the Holderness School and can meet in an informal, yet rigorous atmosphere. Participation from students and junior researchers is particularly encouraged. The conference is structured around invited morning and evening talks, and a late afternoon poster session. The afternoons are left on purpose free to promote discussions, exchange of new ideas, and connections among colleagues while enjoying the many outdoor activities offered by the area. We look forward to seeing you in Holderness!
Advanced Cell and Tissue Biomanufacturing
June 25-30, 2023
Hosted by the Gordon Research Conference Frontiers of Science, this conference explores
Research surrounding cell and tissue biomanufacturing. Design of the conference is still underway, but posters are highly encouraged to be submitted to contribute to the experts covering the newest discoveries in this field. Applications for this meeting must be submitted by May 28, 2023, and financial assistance is available for qualified applicants through the GRC Carl Storm Underrepresented Minority Fellowship Program. To learn more about financial assistance you can click here.
Past research conferences
February 24-26, 2021
The REV is a conference that is held annually by the International Association of Online Engineering (IAOE) and the Global Online Laboratory Consortium (GOLC). REV 2021 is the 18th conference of the annual events and will focus on the subject of Online Engineering, Cyber-physical Systems, Internet of Things and its influence on Society. The objective of this conference is to address the changing global network and the rising interest in online collaboration, teleworking, remote services, and other digital working environments. The conference next year will be hosted from February 24-26. Click the link to learn more.
Pitt Pre-Health Virtual Summit:
March 6th, 2021
This year’s Summit features Keynote Speaker Dr. Chris Murawski, a Pittsburgh native involved in orthopedic and rehabilitation research, who was selected for Forbes 30 under 30 in Healthcare in 2016. He is a 3rd year resident at UPMC, thus he will be able to discuss what it is like working in a hospital during a pandemic.
Along with the speaker, the Summit will feature a networking fair of 30+ graduate programs from schools across the country. Each student will be able to select two breakout sessions to attend, featuring interview tips with Tom McKenzie, a Rehabilitation Science Simulation, and more!
Invest in Oxygen
March 11, 2021
On March 11th at 11 am EST, the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) and Murdoch Children’s Research Institute (MCRI) will hold a virtual event moderated by President Bill Clinton, founder of the Clinton Foundation and 42nd President of the United States, to discuss the urgent need to expand global access to medical oxygen. Dr. Fauci will also be part of the panel. To watch the discussion, use this link: markham.live/oxygen/
3rd International Conference on Research in Science, Engineering and Technology
March 11-13, 2021
The fields of science, engineering, and technology drive socio-economic development forward. It’s where ‘innovation’ and ‘collaboration’ are not just buzzwords, but core principles. Keynote speakers include Dr. Mohamed Mahmoud Chawki, an expert in cybercrime, as well as Prof. Dr. Flávio Henrique Batista de Souza, a professor in AI and its application to healthcare. For more info, visit: https://www.icrset.org/
NASPA Virtual Conference 2021
March 17-26, 2021
This undergraduate student conference focuses on career development and provides resources. This year's conference will focus on the topics of climate and sustainability as well as addressing student needs.
Digital Health World Congress
March 30-31, 2021
The conference aims to speak on how digital systems are used to enhance healthcare across the world. There will be an emphasis on COVID-19, and speakers include CEOs from several healthcare companies as well as people from the UK’s NHS (National Health Services).
April 10, 2021
The West Coast Biological Sciences Undergraduate Research (WCBSUR) Conference is held annually, and is one of the oldest intercollegiate conferences in the nation. This event is an opportunity for undergraduate students interested in research to present their projects in biological and biochemical fields, as well as to foster interactions between students and faculty who are committed to undergraduate research in biological sciences. The next conference will be held on April 10, 2021. More information can be found through the link.
West Coast Biological Sciences Undergraduate Research (WCBSUR) Conference
April 9, 2022
This undergraduate research conference allows students to present their research in the fields of biology or biochemistry.
Stanford Research Conference
This undergraduate research conference connects students with other researchers and a variety of guest speakers will be present.
April 12-14, 2021
The Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) will be hosting its annual National Conference on Undergraduate Research (NCUR) virtually on April 12-14, 2021. This event is an opportunity for students to promote their own undergraduate research, scholarship, and creative activity throughout all subject fields and disciplines. In order to apply to attend, an abstract for research must be submitted by November 1, 2020. More information can be found through the link.
Georgetown University Undergraduate Research Conference
April 22, 2021
The conference will be held VIRTUALLY on Thursday, April 22nd, 2021. To facilitate the transition to a virtual conference, we will be using a combination of Canvas and Zoom. The current schedule is 10 am-11:30 am (AM session), 12:00 pm-1:00 pm (Keynote Speaker), 1:30 pm-3:00 pm (PM session), 3:30 pm-4:30 pm (Oral Presentations), and 4:30-5:00 (Awards).
University of Chicago Undergraduate Research Symposium
May 21, 2021
This undergraduate conference will feature presentations from students and groups of students.
Symposium on Data Science and Statistics
June 2-4, 2021
Beyond Big Data: Shaping the Future
The American Statistical Association invites you to join us at the annual Symposium on Data Science and Statistics, which will be held virtually from June 2-4, 2021. SDSS provides a unique opportunity for data scientists, computer scientists, and statisticians to come together and exchange ideas. Sessions will be offered in: Computational Statistics, Machine Learning, Data Visualization, Practice and Applications, Education, and Software & Data Science Technologies. Featured speakers will discuss topics ranging from COVID-19 to 2020 census and election data. More information can be found through the link.
June 8, 2021
The International Student Congress of (bio)Medical Sciences is one of the leading forums in biomedical sciences and takes place annually. The conference is open to both undergraduate and graduate students who are interested in medicine, pharmacy, biology, dentistry, human movement sciences, biomedical engineering & life sciences, and technology. These participants may choose to present their research at ISCOMS or register as a non-presenting participant. The 28th edition of ISCOMS will be taking place on June 8, 2021. More information and updates about this event can be found on their website via the link.
Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
June 19-25, 2021
CVPR is the premier annual computer vision event comprising the main conference and several co-located workshops and short courses. With its high quality and low cost, it provides an exceptional value for students, academics, and industry researchers. The event will occur in a virtual setting, and registration can be found here: http://cvpr2021.thecvf.com/node/47
ESA Vital Connections in Ecology 2021
August 2-6, 2021
The Ecological Society of America will be hosting a hybrid-style conference from August 2-6 this year. The theme of the event will be “Vital Connections”. In particular, the conference will emphasize how ecologists can understand the connections between plants and animals and the world around them. There will also be workshops and info sessions conducted during this period too.
Avian Infectious Disease 2021
September 15-17, 2021
Infectious diseases threaten the prosperity of the poultry industry across the globe and pose a danger to public health. This meeting will highlight the progress regarding this issue and of the previous Microbiology Society Focused Meetings. Furthermore, the meeting will continue to introduce literature focusing on molecular biology, host response, and pathogenesis. The meeting will also touch on epidemiology, genetics, and control.
Human Evolution Conference– From Fossils to Ancient and Modern Genomes (Virtual)
Abstracts due September 21, 2021; Registration deadline October 26, 2021
Connecting archaeology and advances in the field of genetics, those interested in studying human evolution can come to hear about human demography, genetic admixture and adaptation, human evolution and disease, and population structure. Keynote lecture videos from the 2019 meeting are also included on the web page linked above.
European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) Workshop: Recent Advances of Structural Biology of Membrane Proteins (Virtual)
Abstracts due October 4, 2021; Registration deadline November 1, 2021
This workshop focuses on the central theme of lipids aiding the understanding of the study and preservation of membrane proteins (MPs). Researchers pioneering new experimental and computational methodologies to study integral membrane proteins will be brought together to discuss and explore the newest developments in the membrane protein field. Topics that will be discussed include new mimetics for MP research, expression and purification methods, biophysics of cell membranes, X-ray methods for structural research, binding proteins for structural and functional MP research, and computational methods to probe the structure and dynamics of MPs. Flyer link
International Hypoglycaemia Study Group (IHSG) Advances in Hypoglycaemia (Virtual)
Abstracts due October 6, 2021; Registration deadline November 16, 2021
Check out this unique experience to connect with and learn from the hypoglycaemia research community. The two-day virtual meeting will provide opportunities to network with key leaders in the field and hear about the latest advancements and discoveries in the hypoglycaemia research field.
October 28-30, 2021
SACNAS conference is one of the largest multidisciplinary and multicultural conferences that cover the STEM field, where those from all backgrounds can participate to share ideas and become equipped with the proper tools for their academic and professional paths in STEM for the future. Attendees will have the chance to learn more about cutting-edge research in the sciences, keynote speakers, and introduction to multicultural celebrations and traditions. The next SACNAS conference will be held in Kansas City, Missouri, from October 28 to 30, 2021. More information can be found through the link.
Early Career Conference in Philosophy of Particle & High Energy Physics
November 6 & 7, 2021
Submit proposals for contributed talks surrounding high-energy and particle physics. The conference provides an academic atmosphere to explore the philosophical inquiries surrounding cosmology, astrophysics, and quantum field theory. Invited speakers include Siska de Baerdemaerker, James D. Fraser, Marie Gueguen, Marian J. R. Gilton, Adam Koberinski, and David Wallace.
Society for Neuroscience 2021
November 8-11 (virtual) & 13-16 (in person), 2021
The Society for Neuroscience is hosting its annual conference, Neuroscience 2021, in a hybrid format (i.e. there will be both virtual and in-person participation options). This is also the SfN’s 50th anniversary and the most inclusive experience to date. Poster presentations will encompass all aspects of neuroscience research and will even feature some research conducted at Georgetown University. To register, visit https://www.sfn.org/meetings/neuroscience-2021/registration.
Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS)
November 10-13, 2021 (virtual)
ABRCMS is a research conference dedicated to giving underrepresented students a chance to share their research. The conference hosts scientific and professional development sessions, student presentations, and networking opportunities. Last year, the conference had about 4,000 attendees and in 2019, it received the AIMBE Excellence in STEM Education Award. Learn more about ABRCMS.
5th Annual East Central Illinois ACS Undergraduate Research Conference
November 14-20, 2021
The East Central Illinois American Chemical Society (ACS) Undergraduate Research Conference is a yearly event every fall that gives undergraduates interested or involved in research in the chemical science field the opportunity to share their progress and findings with others through presentations and posters. This year, the conference will take place virtually between the dates of Saturday, November 14, 2020, to Friday, November 20, 2020. In addition to presentations, there will be opportunities to network virtually with sponsoring organizations, listen to panels regarding graduate school, and a keynote speaker. For more information, click on the link above.
November 16-18, 2021
Focussing on women’s health and biological reproductive sciences, this summit will convene leading researchers and innovators to explore the advancements and discoveries in the field. Themes of the summit include Healthy Beginnings, Shaping Metabolism, and Healthy Mind Through Transitions. The summit can be attended virtually or in person and is sponsored by the Magee-Women’s Research Institute.
American Society of Hematology (ASH) 63rd Annual Meeting & Exposition
December 11-14, 2021
Now open for in-person and virtual registration. This meeting will cover new advancements and discoveries in the field of malignant and non-malignant hematology. Visit the link above to apply to become an exhibitor or submit an abstract. Please note that at least one mentor or author featured on the paper or research effort must belong to the AHS.
2021 AAAS Annual Meeting
This conference has shifted into a virtual setting this year. As a result, the AAAS has set up a website where they will continually upload videos and presentations over the courses of the next few weeks. Speakers will talk about a wide range of topics across all disciplines of science. The home page of the meeting can be accessed through the link above.
The Transportation Research Board (TRB) 101st Annual Meeting
January 9-13, 2022
This research conference is expected to attract thousands of transportation professionals from around the world. The meeting program covers all transportation modes, with sessions and workshops addressing topics of interest to policymakers, administrators, practitioners, researchers, and representatives of government, industry, and academic institutions.
APS Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics (CUWiP)
Friday, January 21 - Sunday, January 23, 2022 (virtual)
Hosted by the American Physical Society, this conference is aimed to facilitate communication of career opportunities, development, and research in the physical sciences while addressing the gender minority status of women in physics.
American Physiological Society Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships
Application due February 1st, 2022
The American Physiological Society is awarding a $4,000 stipend, up to $1,300 in EB travel expenses, and a one-year complimentary APS membership. Applicants must submit a 500-word synopsis of their research and have above a 3.0 GPA. There are no citizenship requirements, but each applicant must have two letters of recommendation.
International Conference on Marine Science and Aquaculture - (ICMSA-22)
February 3rd, 2022
This conference will describe all different types of research projects within the field of marine sciences. The event is open to anyone interested and will take place on February 3rd, 2022. There is also an opportunity to submit papers for the conference when registering. The conference will be held in person at the Hotel Lombardy, 2019 Pennsylvania Ave NW, Washington, DC 20006.
Emerging Researchers National (ERN) Conference in STEM
February 3-5, 2022
Hosted by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Inclusive STEM Ecosystems for Equity & Diversity (ISEED) Programs, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) Division of Human Resource Development (HRD), this conference aims to aid undergraduate students with their science communication skills and their preparations for future careers in the scientific research community. Students will present poster and oral presentations.
Florida Undergraduate Research Conference (FURC)
February 18 & 19, 2022
FURC is one of the nation's largest multi-disciplinary research conferences. It is an annual event open to all undergraduate researchers in the state of Florida to present their research in a poster forum. FURC 2022 will be hosted by the University of Central Florida on February 18-19, 2022. Abstract submissions are due December 15, 2021.
Gordon Research Central Nervous System Injury and Repair Conference Spinal Cord and Nervous System Injury: Exploring Mechanisms to Promote Repair
Applications due February 20, 2022
Residence Inn at Oxnard River Ridge, 2101 West Vineyard Ave, Oxnard, CA, US
This conference presents the opportunity to exchange exciting, cutting-edge scientific data and novel ideas in the rapidly advancing fields of injury, regeneration, and repair of the nervous system. The conference has a particular emphasis on spinal cord injury and touches upon non-mammalian models, inflammatory responses, metabolic changes, etc.
National Science Teaching Association Conference
March 31-April 2, 2022
This conference presents an opportunity for scientists to learn of the newest teaching methods, materials, and innovations in the field of science. The conference will delve into developing scientific literacy in the classroom, strategies for creating inclusive science classrooms, using science inquiry to facilitate learning for multilingual learners, promoting effective assessments in the STEM classroom, and developing accountability systems for expanding STEM participation.
2022 Eastern Colleges Science Conference
April 2, 2022
Check out this undergraduate conference focussed on facilitating a lively forum for the presentation of undergraduate research. The conference allows the presentation of research posters or full-length research papers. Please note that there will be a $20 registration fee.
Permanently Removing CO2 from Our Emissions and Atmosphere
April 3 - 8, 2022
Hosted by the Gordon Research Conference in Ventura California, this conference will discuss the emerging role removing carbon from our atmosphere may play in the economy, the field of science, and society. This conference is a great way to explore the ideas of carbon capture, utilization and storage.